Construct and run Android Automotive OS on Raspberry Pi 4B – Grape Up


Have you ever ever needed to construct your personal Android? It’s straightforward in line with the official handbook, nevertheless it’s getting tougher on a Home windows (or Mac) machine, or should you’d wish to run it on bodily {hardware}. Nonetheless too straightforward? Let’s construct Android Automotive OS – the identical supply code, however one other layer of complexity. On this handbook, we’ll cowl all steps wanted to construct and run Android Automotive OS 11 AOSP on Raspberry Pi 4B utilizing Home windows. The answer isn’t excellent, nevertheless. Essentially the most principal challenge is an absence of Google Companies as a result of your entire AAOS is on an open-source undertaking and Google doesn’t present its providers this fashion. Nonetheless, let’s construct the open-source model first, after which we will attempt to face incoming points.



If you wish to run the system on a bodily system, you want one. I exploit the Raspberry Pi 4 mannequin B with 8GB of RAM ( By the best way, if you wish to construct and run an emulator from the supply, it’s additionally attainable, however there’s a small limitation – packaging the emulator to a zipper file, transferring it to a different laptop, and even working it beneath Android Studio was launched in Android 12.

To energy your Raspberry, you want an influence adapter (USB C, min. 5V 3A). I exploit the Raspberry-official 5.1V 3A mannequin. It’s also possible to energy the Raspberry laptop out of your desktop/laptop computer’s USB port, particularly should you’re going to debug it through a serial connection. Verify the “If it doesn’t work” part under for the required {hardware}.

One other piece of {hardware} wanted is an SD card. In concept, 4GB is all you want, nevertheless, I like to recommend shopping for a bigger card to have some additional area in your purposes on Android. I exploit 32GB and 64GB playing cards. You’ll additionally want a built-in or exterior card reader. I exploit the latter. 

The following step is a display. It’s optionally available however fancy. You possibly can join your mouse and optionally keyboard to your Raspberry Pi through USB and join any show you’ve gotten through micro-HDMI however utilizing a contact display is rather more intuitive. I exploit a Waveshare 10-inch display devoted to Raspberry ( The display field has a spot to screw the Raspberry too, so that you don’t want any additional case. It’s also possible to purchase it with an influence adapter and a show cable.

Should you don’t purchase a bundle, be sure to have all essential equipment: micro-HDMI – HDMI cable to attach a display (Waveshare or some other), USB A – USB mini A cable to attach a contact sensor of the display, USB mini A 5V 3A adapter to energy the display.

After all, you want a pc. On this handbook, we use a Home windows machine with a minimum of 512GB of storage (the Android supply is large) and 16GB of RAM.

Software program

You possibly can most likely construct the whole lot in pure Home windows, however the beneficial technique is to make use of WSL. I assume you have already got it put in, so simply be sure to have the most recent WSL2 model. In case you have by no means used WSL earlier than, see the total handbook right here windows/wsl/set up.

WSL changes

The usual WSL set up makes use of a too-small digital drive and restricted RAM, so it’s worthwhile to alter it. 

Let’s begin with the disk. Be certain the WSL is shut down by working ‘wsl –shutdown’ within the command immediate. Open Home windows Command Immediate with admin privileges and enter ‘diskpart’. Then run ‘choose vdisk file=”<path to WSL drive file>”’. For me, the trail is “C:Customers<person>AppDataLocalPackagesCanonicalGroupLimited.Ubuntu_<WSL_instance_id>LocalStateext4.vhdx”. Now you’ll be able to broaden it with the command ‘broaden vdisk most=512000’. Round 300GB is sufficient for Android 11, however if you wish to play with a number of branches of Android on the similar time, you want extra space. Now you’ll be able to shut the diskpart with the ‘exit’ command. Subsequent, open the WSL and run ‘sudo resize2fs /dev/sdb 512000M’. I assume you’ve gotten solely a single drive connected to the WSL and it’s seen within the Linux subsystem as /dev/sdb. You possibly can examine it with the instructions ‘sudo mount -t devtmpfs none /dev || mount | grep ext4’. 

Now, let’s alter the reminiscence. Cease the WSL once more. Open your private home listing in Home windows and open .wslconfig file. Create it if this file doesn’t exist but. Within the file, it’s worthwhile to create a [wsl2] part and reminiscence configuration. The whole file ought to seem like this: 

As you’ll be able to see, I’ve connected 16GB to the digital machine. It’s assigned dynamically, in line with wants, however you have to be conscious that the digital machine can take all of it, so should you enable it to eat your complete RAM, it may well power your Home windows to make use of a tough disk to outlive (which is able to gradual the whole lot down considerably).


Constructing Android on 8 cores, 16GB RAM machine takes round 4 hours. If you wish to do it quicker otherwise you don’t have a pc highly effective sufficient at your private home or workplace, you’ll be able to take into account constructing within the cloud. Easy AWS EC2 with 32 cores and 64GB of reminiscence does the job in a single hour (to obtain and construct) and prices just some bucks.

Let’s Get Able to Rumble!!!

..or a minimum of to constructing.

Extra conditions

We want some software program however not a lot. Simply set up the next packages. This set of libraries means that you can construct Android Automotive OS variations 11 to 13.

sudo apt replace && sudo apt set up gcc-aarch64-linux-gnu libssl-dev bc python3-setuptools repo python-is-python3 libncurses5 zip unzip make gcc flex bison -y

Supply code downloading

Let’s create a house listing for our android and obtain sources.

mkdir android-11.0.0_r48 && cd android-11.0.0_r48
repo init -u -b android-11.0.0_r48 --partial-clone --clone-filter=blob:restrict=10M
git clone .repo/local_manifests -b arpi-11
repo sync

“repo init” will ask you for some private knowledge. It’s collected by Google. To study extra about optimizations right here, examine this handbook: ‘git clone’ provides a customized code from Android RPI undertaking ( with drivers in your Raspberry Pi. The undertaking is nice and it’s all you want if you wish to run Android TV. To run Android Automotive OS, we’ll want to regulate it barely (see “Changes” part under). ‘repo sync’ will take a while as a result of it’s worthwhile to obtain round 200GB of code. In case you have a robust machine with an incredible Web connection, you should use extra threads with ‘-j X’ parameter added to the command. The default thread rely is 4. In case you have already synchronized your supply code with out android-rpi native manifest, it’s worthwhile to add –force-sync to the ’repo-sync’ command.


All modifications from this part can obtain as a patch file connected to this text. See the “Path file” part under.

Android-rpi supplies Android TV for Raspberry Pi. We have to take away the TV-related configuration and add the Automotive OS one.

Let’s begin with eradicating pointless recordsdata. You possibly can safely take away the next recordsdata and directories:

  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/anim
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values-television
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/dimens.xml
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/types.xml
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages

To take away the person discover display not wanted in Automotive OS, create a brand new file system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/packages/providers/Automotive/service/res/values/config.xml with the next content material:

<?xml model="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<assets xmlns:xliff="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:doc:1.2"> 
  <string title="config_userNoticeUiService" translatable="false"></string>

To exchange the fundamental TV overlay config with the Automotive overlay config, alter the configuration in system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml.

Take away:

  • <integer title=”config_defaultUiModeType”>4</integer> <!–disable pressured UI_MODE_TYPE_TELEVISION, as there’s solely MODE_TYPE_CAR accessible now–>
  • <integer title=”config_longPressOnHomeBehavior”>0</integer> <!–disable house button lengthy press motion–>
  • <bool title=”config_hasPermanentDpad”>true</bool> <!–disable D-pad–>
  • <string title=”config_appsAuthorizedForSharedAccounts”>;;</string> <!–take away pointless entry for a shared account as there’s nothing in* now–>

… and add:

  • <bool title=”config_showNavigationBar”>true</bool> <!–allow software program navigation bar, as there isn’t any hardwave one–>
  • <bool title=”config_enableMultiUserUI”>true</bool> <!–allow multi-user, as AAOS makes use of background processes known as in one other classes –>
  • <integer title=”config_multiuserMaximumUsers”>8</integer> <!–set most person rely, required by the earlier one–>

Additionally in system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages/SystemUI/res/values/config.xml, take away <string title=”config_statusBarComponent” translatable=”false”></string>.

Now let’s rename the android-rpi authentic /system/arpi/rpi4/ to /system/arpi/rpi4/ We have to alter the file a bit bit.

Take away the next variables definitions. A few of them you’ll re-create in one other file, whereas a few of them usually are not wanted.


Take away the next invocations. We’re going to name essential exterior recordsdata in one other mk file.

  • $(name inherit-product, system/google/atv/merchandise/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • embody frameworks/native/construct/

In PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES take away debug.drm.mode.power=1280×720 and add the next properties. This fashion you take away the TV launcher configuration and override the default automotive launcher configuration.

  • dalvik.vm.dex2oat64.enabled=true
  • keyguard.no_require_sim=true
  • ro.logd.measurement=1m

Now it’s worthwhile to fully take away the android-rpi TV launcher and add RenderScript help for Automotive OS. In PRODUCT_PACKAGES take away:

… and add:

Create a brand new rpi4.mk4 with the next content material:

PRODUCT_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += system/generic/automobile/frequent/overlay
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, system/arpi/rpi4/
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, system/generic/automobile/frequent/
DEVICE_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += system/arpi/rpi4/overlay system/generic/automobile/car_x86_64/overlay

PRODUCT_MODEL := Raspberry Pi 4

As a result of license, keep in mind so as to add your self to the PRODUCT_MANUFACTURER subject.

Now you’ve gotten two mk recordsdata – is borrowed from android-rpi undertaking and adjusted, and accommodates all modifications for Automotive OS. You possibly can meld these two collectively or break up them into extra recordsdata should you’d like, however needless to say the order of invocations does matter (not at all times, however nonetheless). 

As Android Automotive OS is larger than Android TV, we have to improve the system partition measurement to suit the brand new picture. In system/arpi/rpi4/ improve BOARD_SYSTEMIMAGE_PARTITION_SIZE to 2147483648, which suggests 2GB.

It’s essential to apply all modifications described in too. These modifications are additionally included within the patch file connected.

Should you use the 8GB model of Raspberry Pi, it’s worthwhile to exchange system/arpi/rpi4/boot/fixup4.dat and system/arpi/rpi4/boot/start4.elf recordsdata. Yow will discover the proper recordsdata within the patch file connected or you might use the official supply: It’s most likely not wanted for 4GB model of Raspberry, however I don’t have such a tool for verification. 

Path file 

Should you desire to use all modifications described above as a single file, go to your sources listing and run ‘git apply –no-index <path_to_patch_file>’. There’s additionally a boot animation changed within the patch file. If you wish to create one among your personal, observe the official handbook right here:

Now we will construct!

That’s the simple half. Simply run just a few instructions from under. Firstly, we have to construct a customized kernel for Android. ‘’ script simply configures all variables required. The primary ‘make’ command builds the actual kernel picture (which might take a couple of minutes). Subsequent, construct a tool tree configuration. 

cd kernel/arpi
ARCH=arm64 scripts/kconfig/ arch/arm64/configs/bcm2711_defconfig kernel/configs/android-base.config kernel/configs/android-recommended.config
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- make Picture.gz
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="-@" make broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="-@" make overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo
cd ../..

The following half is to construct your entire system. “” script units up variables and provides customized instructions to your terminal. Then you’ll be able to choose the proper pair of Android variations and units with “lunch”. You possibly can run it with out parameters to see (nearly) all attainable configurations. On this step, you’ll be able to resolve to construct a system for devoted {hardware} (eg. Dragonboard) and change between telephone/pill/TV/wearable/automotive variations of Android. The final line is an actual constructing. We are able to’t run simply “make” or “m”, as documented within the official handbook as a result of we have to create three particular photos to jot down them on an SD card and run them on Raspberry Pi. Substitute “X” in ‘-j X’ with the variety of threads you wish to use. The default worth is the variety of logical processors in your laptop. 

supply construct/
lunch rpi4-eng
make -j X ramdisk systemimage vendorimage

I hope you’ve gotten a pleasant ebook subsequent to you as a result of the final constructing takes just a few hours relying in your {hardware}. Excellent news!  If it’s worthwhile to adapt one thing and construct once more, typically you simply want the three final strains (and even simply the final one) – to supply the surroundings setup, to choose the lunch configuration, and to make ramdisk, system, and vendor photos. And it takes hours for the primary time solely. 

Creating an SD card 

This step appears to be straightforward, nevertheless it isn’t. WSL doesn’t comprise drivers for the USB card reader. You should utilize usbip to ahead a tool from Home windows to the subsystem, nevertheless it doesn’t work effectively with exterior storage with out partitions. The answer is a VirtualBox with Ubuntu put in. Simply create a digital machine, set up Ubuntu, and set up Visitor Additions. Then you’ll be able to join the cardboard reader and go it to the digital machine. Should you’re a minimalist, you should use Ubuntu Server or some other Linux distribution you want. Bear in mind that utilizing a card reader constructed into your laptop could also be difficult relying on drivers and the {hardware} connection sort (USB-like, or PCI-e). 

Now, it’s worthwhile to create a partition schema on the SD card. I assume the cardboard is loaded to the system as /dev/sdb. Verify your configuration earlier than persevering with to keep away from formatting your foremost drive or one other catastrophe. Let’s erase the present partition desk and create a brand new one. 

sudo umount /dev/sdb*
sudo wipefs -a /dev/sdb
sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Now let’s create partitions. First, you want a 128MB lively partition of the W95 FAT32 (LBA) sort, second a 2GB Linux partition, third a 128MB Linux partition, and the remainder of the cardboard for person knowledge (additionally Linux partition). Right here’s the right way to navigate via fdisk menu to configure all partitions.

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.37.2).
Modifications will stay in reminiscence solely, till you resolve to jot down them.
Watch out earlier than utilizing the write command.
Machine doesn't comprise a acknowledged partition desk.
Created a brand new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x179fb9bc.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (0 major, 0 prolonged, 4 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (1-4, default 1): 
First sector (2048-61022207, default 2048): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-size{Okay,M,G,T,P} (2048-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 1 of sort 'Linux' and of measurement 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): a
Chosen partition 1
The bootable flag on partition 1 is enabled now.
Command (m for assist): t
Chosen partition 1
Hex code or alias (sort L to record all): 0c
Modified sort of partition 'Linux' to 'W95 FAT32 (LBA)'.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (1 major, 0 prolonged, 3 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (2-4, default 2): 
First sector (264192-61022207, default 264192): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-size{Okay,M,G,T,P} (264192-61022207, default 61022207): +2G
Created a brand new partition 2 of sort 'Linux' and of measurement 2 GiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (2 major, 0 prolonged, 2 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (3,4, default 3): 
First sector (4458496-61022207, default 4458496): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-size{Okay,M,G,T,P} (4458496-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 3 of sort 'Linux' and of measurement 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition sort
   p   major (3 major, 0 prolonged, 1 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default e): p
Chosen partition 4
First sector (4720640-61022207, default 4720640): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-size{Okay,M,G,T,P} (4720640-61022207, default 61022207):
Created a brand new partition 4 of sort 'Linux' and of measurement 26,8 GiB.
Command (m for assist): w
The partition desk has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition desk.
Syncing disks.

Watch out with the final partition – fdisk proposes creating an prolonged one by default, which isn’t wanted in our use case.

Should you don’t do it for the primary time on the identical card, you might even see a warning that some partition already accommodates a file system signature. You possibly can safely comply with take away it. 

Partition #4 accommodates a ext4 signature.
Do you wish to take away the signature? [Y]es/[N]o: Y
The signature shall be eliminated by a write command.

Now, let’s provide file programs for the primary and the final partitions. 

sudo mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L userdata /dev/sdb4

We received’t write something to the final one, because it’s for person knowledge solely and shall be stuffed by Android through the first boot. However we have to write some recordsdata for the primary one. Let’s create a brief mount listing beneath /mnt/p1 (like “partition 1”), mount it, and duplicate the mandatory recordsdata from the Android constructed within the earlier part. It’s unusual, however we’re going to repeat recordsdata from one digital machine (WSL) to a different (VirtualBox). You possibly can merely mount a wsl drive as a shared folder in VirtualBox. Should you don’t see a WSL drive in your Home windows Explorer, you’ll be able to map it as a community drive utilizing “wsl$Ubuntu” path

sudo mkdir /mnt/p1
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/p1
sudo mkdir /mnt/p1/overlays
sudo cp system/arpi/rpi4/boot/* /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/Picture.gz /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/dts/broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm/boot/dts/overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo /mnt/p1/overlays/
sudo cp out/goal/product/rpi4/ramdisk.img /mnt/p1
sudo umount /mnt/p1
sudo rm -rf /mnt/p1

Should you’re wanting on the official android-rpi undertaking handbook, there’s a totally different path for vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo file. That’s OK – they use a symbolic hyperlink we’re unable to make use of on this filesystem. 

Generally, you’ll be able to see an error message when creating an “overlays” listing. It occurs now and again, as a result of “mount” returns to the console earlier than actually mounting the drive. In such a case, simply name “mkdir” once more. Pay attention to that, particularly should you’re going to copy-paste your entire itemizing from above. 

Now, let’s copy the 2 remaining partitions. Should you’re battling dd command (it might dangle), you’ll be able to attempt to copy huge *.img recordsdata from WSL to VirtualBox first.

cd <PATH_TO_YOUR_ANDROID_SOURCES_IN_WSL>/out/goal/product/rpi4/
sudo dd if=system.img of=/dev/sdb2 bs=1M standing=progress
sudo dd if=vendor.img of=/dev/sdb3 bs=1M standing=progress


You’re completed. You’ve downloaded, ready, constructed, and saved your personal Android Automotive OS. Now you’ll be able to put the SD card into Raspberry, and join all cables (be sure to join the Raspberry energy cable on the finish). There isn’t any “energy” button, and it doesn’t matter which micro-HDMI or USB port of Raspberry you employ. It’s now time to take pleasure in your personal Android Automotive OS! 

If it doesn’t work

The world isn’t excellent and generally one thing goes terribly mistaken. Should you see the boot animation for a very long time, or in case your system crashes in a loop just a few seconds after boot, you’ll be able to attempt to debug it.

You want a USB-TTL bridge (like this one to attach the proper pins from the Raspberry to the USB. It’s essential to join pin 6 (floor) to the GND pin within the bridge, pin 8 (RXD) to the RXD pin of the bridge and pin 10 (TXD) to the TXD pin of the bridge. If you wish to energy the Raspberry through the bridge, it’s worthwhile to additionally join pin 2 to +5V pin of the bridge. It isn’t beneficial, due to the decrease voltage, so your system could be unstable. Should you don’t have an influence adapter, you’ll be able to merely join a USB cable between your laptop port and the USB C port of the Raspberry. Warning! You possibly can’t join each a +5V connector right here and a USB C energy port of the Raspberry otherwise you’ll burn the Raspberry board. 

See the schema for the connection reference.

The picture relies on 20171226043249PINOUT-USBTTL-CP2102.pdf ( and File:RaspberryPi 4 Mannequin B.svg – Wikimedia Commons

Relying in your bridge mannequin, you might want an extra driver. I exploit this one:

Once you join the +5V pin or USB-C energy adapter (once more, by no means each on the similar time!), the Raspberry begins. Now you’ll be able to open Putty and connect with your Android. Decide Serial and kind COMX within the serial line definition. X is the variety of your COM port. You possibly can examine it in your system supervisor – search for “USB to UART bridge (COM4)” or the like. The right connection velocity is 115200.

Open the connection to entry the Android shell. By default, Android spawns all logs to the usual output, so it’s best to see lots of them instantly. Anyway, it’s dual-side communication and you’ve got full terminal entry to your Android if it’s worthwhile to examine/modify any file or name any command. Simply strike enter to see the command immediate. You possibly can even name ‘su’ to achieve superuser entry in your Android working on Raspberry. 

Connecting through adb 

If you wish to use Android Debug Bridge to hook up with your system, utilizing a USB bridge isn’t sufficient. When working ‘adb units’ in your laptop, the Android Automotive OS working on Raspberry isn’t acknowledged. You should utilize a putty connection to activate a TCP debug bridge as a substitute. 

Be sure you’ve linked Android and your laptop to the identical community. Open putty and connect with the working Android console. Log as root and allow ADB through TCP. Then examine your IP tackle. 

setprop service.adb.tcp.port 5555
cease adbd
begin adbd
ifconfig wlan0

Now, utilizing your Home windows command line, go to the Android SDK platform-tools listing and connect with your system. As you’ll be able to see, the IP tackle of mine Raspnberry is

cd %userprofilepercentAppDataLocalAndroidSdkplatform-tools
adb join

If you wish to use ADB in WSL, you’ll be able to hyperlink the Home windows program in WSL utilizing the next command.

sudo ln -s /mnt/c/Customers/<your_username>/AppData/Native/Android/Sdk/platform-tools/adb.exe /usr/bin/adb

Now you can use ADB to make use of logcat with out putty or to put in purposes with out manually transferring APK recordsdata to the SD card. Enjoyable reality – should you use a USB bridge and USB energy provide, you’ve gotten two bodily connections between your laptop and the Android-running one, nevertheless, you continue to want to make use of ADB over WiFi to make use of the debug bridge.


That’s all. Android Automotive OS 11 is working. You possibly can set up the apps you want, take them to your automobile, or do no matter you’d like with them.  Utilizing {hardware} as a substitute of an emulator means that you can manually handle partitions (e.g. for the OTA replace) and join exterior units like an actual GPS receiver or accelerometer. The naked steel {hardware} overperforms the emulator too. And most significantly – you’ll be able to simply take it to your automobile, obtain energy from an in-car USB port, join it to an ODB-II port and run real-life exams with out a laptop computer.


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